Source code for pyvista.utilities.geometric_objects

"""Provides an easy way of generating several geometric objects.

CONTAINS
--------
vtkArrowSource
vtkCylinderSource
vtkSphereSource
vtkPlaneSource
vtkLineSource
vtkCubeSource
vtkConeSource
vtkDiskSource
vtkRegularPolygonSource
vtkPyramid
vtkPlatonicSolidSource
vtkSuperquadricSource

as well as some pure-python helpers.

"""
import numpy as np

import pyvista
from pyvista import _vtk
from pyvista.utilities import check_valid_vector
from pyvista.utilities.common import _coerce_pointslike_arg

NORMALS = {
    'x': [1, 0, 0],
    'y': [0, 1, 0],
    'z': [0, 0, 1],
    '-x': [-1, 0, 0],
    '-y': [0, -1, 0],
    '-z': [0, 0, -1],
}


def translate(surf, center=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0), direction=(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)):
    """Translate and orient a mesh to a new center and direction.

    By default, the input mesh is considered centered at the origin
    and facing in the x direction.

    """
    normx = np.array(direction) / np.linalg.norm(direction)
    normz = np.cross(normx, [0, 1.0, 0.0000001])
    normz /= np.linalg.norm(normz)
    normy = np.cross(normz, normx)

    trans = np.zeros((4, 4))
    trans[:3, 0] = normx
    trans[:3, 1] = normy
    trans[:3, 2] = normz
    trans[3, 3] = 1

    surf.transform(trans)
    if not np.allclose(center, [0.0, 0.0, 0.0]):
        surf.points += np.array(center)


[docs]def Cylinder( center=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0), direction=(1.0, 0.0, 0.0), radius=0.5, height=1.0, resolution=100, capping=True, ): """Create the surface of a cylinder. See also :func:`pyvista.CylinderStructured`. Parameters ---------- center : sequence, optional Location of the centroid in ``[x, y, z]``. direction : sequence, optional Direction cylinder points to in ``[x, y, z]``. radius : float, optional Radius of the cylinder. height : float, optional Height of the cylinder. resolution : int, optional Number of points on the circular face of the cylinder. capping : bool, optional Cap cylinder ends with polygons. Default ``True``. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Cylinder surface. Examples -------- >>> import pyvista >>> import numpy as np >>> cylinder = pyvista.Cylinder(center=[1, 2, 3], direction=[1, 1, 1], ... radius=1, height=2) >>> cylinder.plot(show_edges=True, line_width=5, cpos='xy') """ cylinderSource = _vtk.vtkCylinderSource() cylinderSource.SetRadius(radius) cylinderSource.SetHeight(height) cylinderSource.SetCapping(capping) cylinderSource.SetResolution(resolution) cylinderSource.Update() surf = pyvista.wrap(cylinderSource.GetOutput()) surf.rotate_z(-90, inplace=True) translate(surf, center, direction) return surf
[docs]def CylinderStructured( radius=0.5, height=1.0, center=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0), direction=(1.0, 0.0, 0.0), theta_resolution=32, z_resolution=10, ): """Create a cylinder mesh as a :class:`pyvista.StructuredGrid`. The end caps are left open. This can create a surface mesh if a single value for the ``radius`` is given or a 3D mesh if multiple radii are given as a list/array in the ``radius`` argument. Parameters ---------- radius : float, sequence, optional Radius of the cylinder. If a sequence, then describes the radial coordinates of the cells as a range of values as specified by the ``radius``. height : float, optional Height of the cylinder along its Z-axis. center : sequence Location of the centroid in ``[x, y, z]``. direction : sequence Direction cylinder Z-axis in ``[x, y, z]``. theta_resolution : int, optional Number of points on the circular face of the cylinder. Ignored if ``radius`` is an iterable. z_resolution : int, optional Number of points along the height (Z-axis) of the cylinder. Returns ------- pyvista.StructuredGrid Structured cylinder. Examples -------- Default structured cylinder >>> import pyvista >>> mesh = pyvista.CylinderStructured() >>> mesh.plot(show_edges=True) Structured cylinder with an inner radius of 1, outer of 2, with 5 segments. >>> import numpy as np >>> mesh = pyvista.CylinderStructured(radius=np.linspace(1, 2, 5)) >>> mesh.plot(show_edges=True) """ # Define grid in polar coordinates r = np.array([radius]).ravel() nr = len(r) theta = np.linspace(0, 2 * np.pi, num=theta_resolution) radius_matrix, theta_matrix = np.meshgrid(r, theta) # Transform to cartesian space X = radius_matrix * np.cos(theta_matrix) Y = radius_matrix * np.sin(theta_matrix) # Make all the nodes in the grid xx = np.array([X] * z_resolution).ravel() yy = np.array([Y] * z_resolution).ravel() dz = height / (z_resolution - 1) zz = np.empty(yy.size) zz = np.full((X.size, z_resolution), dz) zz *= np.arange(z_resolution) zz = zz.ravel(order='f') # Create the grid grid = pyvista.StructuredGrid() grid.points = np.c_[xx, yy, zz] grid.dimensions = [nr, theta_resolution, z_resolution] # Orient properly in user direction vx = np.array([0.0, 0.0, 1.0]) if not np.allclose(vx, direction): direction /= np.linalg.norm(direction) vx -= vx.dot(direction) * direction vx /= np.linalg.norm(vx) vy = np.cross(direction, vx) rmtx = np.array([vx, vy, direction]) grid.points = grid.points.dot(rmtx) # Translate to given center grid.points -= np.array(grid.center) grid.points += np.array(center) return grid
[docs]def Arrow( start=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0), direction=(1.0, 0.0, 0.0), tip_length=0.25, tip_radius=0.1, tip_resolution=20, shaft_radius=0.05, shaft_resolution=20, scale=None, ): """Create an arrow. Parameters ---------- start : iterable, optional Start location in ``[x, y, z]``. direction : iterable, optional Direction the arrow points to in ``[x, y, z]``. tip_length : float, optional Length of the tip. tip_radius : float, optional Radius of the tip. tip_resolution : int, optional Number of faces around the tip. shaft_radius : float, optional Radius of the shaft. shaft_resolution : int, optional Number of faces around the shaft. scale : float or str, optional Scale factor of the entire object, default is ``None`` (i.e. scale of 1). ``'auto'`` scales to length of direction array. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Arrow mesh. Examples -------- Plot a default arrow. >>> import pyvista >>> mesh = pyvista.Arrow() >>> mesh.plot(show_edges=True) """ # Create arrow object arrow = _vtk.vtkArrowSource() arrow.SetTipLength(tip_length) arrow.SetTipRadius(tip_radius) arrow.SetTipResolution(tip_resolution) arrow.SetShaftRadius(shaft_radius) arrow.SetShaftResolution(shaft_resolution) arrow.Update() surf = pyvista.wrap(arrow.GetOutput()) if scale == 'auto': scale = float(np.linalg.norm(direction)) if isinstance(scale, float) or isinstance(scale, int): surf.points *= scale elif scale is not None: raise TypeError("Scale must be either float, int or 'auto'.") translate(surf, start, direction) return surf
[docs]def Sphere( radius=0.5, center=(0, 0, 0), direction=(0, 0, 1), theta_resolution=30, phi_resolution=30, start_theta=0, end_theta=360, start_phi=0, end_phi=180, ): """Create a vtk Sphere. Parameters ---------- radius : float, optional Sphere radius. center : np.ndarray or list, optional Center in ``[x, y, z]``. direction : list or tuple or np.ndarray, optional Direction the top of the sphere points to in ``[x, y, z]``. theta_resolution : int , optional Set the number of points in the longitude direction (ranging from ``start_theta`` to ``end_theta``). phi_resolution : int, optional Set the number of points in the latitude direction (ranging from ``start_phi`` to ``end_phi``). start_theta : float, optional Starting longitude angle. end_theta : float, optional Ending longitude angle. start_phi : float, optional Starting latitude angle. end_phi : float, optional Ending latitude angle. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Sphere mesh. Examples -------- Create a sphere using default parameters. >>> import pyvista >>> sphere = pyvista.Sphere() >>> sphere.plot(show_edges=True) Create a quarter sphere by setting ``end_theta``. >>> sphere = pyvista.Sphere(end_theta=90) >>> out = sphere.plot(show_edges=True) """ sphere = _vtk.vtkSphereSource() sphere.SetRadius(radius) sphere.SetThetaResolution(theta_resolution) sphere.SetPhiResolution(phi_resolution) sphere.SetStartTheta(start_theta) sphere.SetEndTheta(end_theta) sphere.SetStartPhi(start_phi) sphere.SetEndPhi(end_phi) sphere.Update() surf = pyvista.wrap(sphere.GetOutput()) surf.rotate_y(-90, inplace=True) translate(surf, center, direction) return surf
[docs]def Plane( center=(0, 0, 0), direction=(0, 0, 1), i_size=1, j_size=1, i_resolution=10, j_resolution=10 ): """Create a plane. Parameters ---------- center : list or tuple or np.ndarray Location of the centroid in ``[x, y, z]``. direction : list or tuple or np.ndarray Direction of the plane's normal in ``[x, y, z]``. i_size : float Size of the plane in the i direction. j_size : float Size of the plane in the j direction. i_resolution : int Number of points on the plane in the i direction. j_resolution : int Number of points on the plane in the j direction. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Plane mesh. Examples -------- Create a default plane. >>> import pyvista >>> mesh = pyvista.Plane() >>> mesh.point_data.clear() >>> mesh.plot(show_edges=True) """ planeSource = _vtk.vtkPlaneSource() planeSource.SetXResolution(i_resolution) planeSource.SetYResolution(j_resolution) planeSource.Update() surf = pyvista.wrap(planeSource.GetOutput()) surf.points[:, 0] *= i_size surf.points[:, 1] *= j_size surf.rotate_y(-90, inplace=True) translate(surf, center, direction) return surf
[docs]def Line(pointa=(-0.5, 0.0, 0.0), pointb=(0.5, 0.0, 0.0), resolution=1): """Create a line. Parameters ---------- pointa : np.ndarray or list, optional Location in ``[x, y, z]``. pointb : np.ndarray or list, optional Location in ``[x, y, z]``. resolution : int, optional Number of pieces to divide line into. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Line mesh. Examples -------- Create a line between ``(0, 0, 0)`` and ``(0, 0, 1)``. >>> import pyvista >>> mesh = pyvista.Line((0, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1)) >>> mesh.plot(color='k', line_width=10) """ if resolution <= 0: raise ValueError('Resolution must be positive') if np.array(pointa).size != 3: raise TypeError('Point A must be a length three tuple of floats.') if np.array(pointb).size != 3: raise TypeError('Point B must be a length three tuple of floats.') src = _vtk.vtkLineSource() src.SetPoint1(*pointa) src.SetPoint2(*pointb) src.SetResolution(resolution) src.Update() line = pyvista.wrap(src.GetOutput()) # Compute distance of every point along line compute = lambda p0, p1: np.sqrt(np.sum((p1 - p0) ** 2, axis=1)) distance = compute(np.array(pointa), line.points) line['Distance'] = distance return line
[docs]def MultipleLines(points=[[-0.5, 0.0, 0.0], [0.5, 0.0, 0.0]]): """Create multiple lines. Parameters ---------- points : np.ndarray or list, optional List of points defining a broken line, default is ``[[-0.5, 0.0, 0.0], [0.5, 0.0, 0.0]]``. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Line mesh. Examples -------- Create a multiple lines between ``(0, 0, 0)``, ``(1, 1, 1)`` and ``(0, 0, 1)``. >>> import pyvista >>> mesh = pyvista.MultipleLines(points=[[0, 0, 0], [1, 1, 1], [0, 0, 1]]) >>> mesh.plot(color='k', line_width=10) """ points, _ = _coerce_pointslike_arg(points) src = _vtk.vtkLineSource() if not (len(points) >= 2): raise ValueError('>=2 points need to define multiple lines.') src.SetPoints(pyvista.vtk_points(points)) src.Update() multiple_lines = pyvista.wrap(src.GetOutput()) return multiple_lines
[docs]def Tube(pointa=(-0.5, 0.0, 0.0), pointb=(0.5, 0.0, 0.0), resolution=1, radius=1.0, n_sides=15): """Create a tube. Parameters ---------- pointa : np.ndarray or list, optional Location in ``[x, y, z]``. pointb : np.ndarray or list, optional Location in ``[x, y, z]``. resolution : int, optional Number of pieces to divide tube into. radius : float, optional Minimum tube radius (minimum because the tube radius may vary). n_sides : int, optional Number of sides for the tube. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Tube mesh. Examples -------- Create a tube between ``(0, 0, 0)`` and ``(0, 0, 1)``. >>> import pyvista >>> mesh = pyvista.Tube((0, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1)) >>> mesh.plot() """ if resolution <= 0: raise ValueError('Resolution must be positive.') if np.array(pointa).size != 3: raise TypeError('Point A must be a length three tuple of floats.') if np.array(pointb).size != 3: raise TypeError('Point B must be a length three tuple of floats.') line_src = _vtk.vtkLineSource() line_src.SetPoint1(*pointa) line_src.SetPoint2(*pointb) line_src.SetResolution(resolution) line_src.Update() if n_sides < 3: raise ValueError('Number of sides `n_sides` must be >= 3') tube_filter = _vtk.vtkTubeFilter() tube_filter.SetInputConnection(line_src.GetOutputPort()) tube_filter.SetRadius(radius) tube_filter.SetNumberOfSides(n_sides) tube_filter.Update() return pyvista.wrap(tube_filter.GetOutput())
[docs]def Cube(center=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0), x_length=1.0, y_length=1.0, z_length=1.0, bounds=None, clean=True): """Create a cube. It's possible to specify either the center and side lengths or just the bounds of the cube. If ``bounds`` are given, all other arguments are ignored. .. versionchanged:: 0.33.0 The cube is created using ``vtk.vtkCubeSource``. For compatibility with :func:`pyvista.PlatonicSolid`, face indices are also added as cell data. For full compatibility with :func:`PlatonicSolid() <pyvista.PlatonicSolid>`, one has to use ``x_length = y_length = z_length = 2 * radius / 3**0.5``. The cube points are also cleaned by default now, leaving only the 8 corners and a watertight (manifold) mesh. Parameters ---------- center : sequence, optional Center in ``[x, y, z]``. x_length : float, optional Length of the cube in the x-direction. y_length : float, optional Length of the cube in the y-direction. z_length : float, optional Length of the cube in the z-direction. bounds : sequence, optional Specify the bounding box of the cube. If given, all other size arguments are ignored. ``(xMin, xMax, yMin, yMax, zMin, zMax)``. clean : bool, optional Whether to clean the raw points of the mesh, making the cube manifold. Note that this will degrade the texture coordinates that come with the mesh, so if you plan to map a texture on the cube, consider setting this to ``False``. .. versionadded:: 0.33.0 Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Mesh of the cube. Examples -------- Create a default cube. >>> import pyvista >>> mesh = pyvista.Cube() >>> mesh.plot(show_edges=True, line_width=5) """ src = _vtk.vtkCubeSource() if bounds is not None: if np.array(bounds).size != 6: raise TypeError( 'Bounds must be given as length 6 tuple: (xMin, xMax, yMin, yMax, zMin, zMax)' ) src.SetBounds(bounds) else: src.SetCenter(center) src.SetXLength(x_length) src.SetYLength(y_length) src.SetZLength(z_length) src.Update() cube = pyvista.wrap(src.GetOutput()) # add face index data for compatibility with PlatonicSolid # but make it inactive for backwards compatibility cube.cell_data.set_array([1, 4, 0, 3, 5, 2], 'FaceIndex') # clean duplicate points if clean: cube.clean(inplace=True) return cube
[docs]def Box(bounds=(-1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0), level=0, quads=True): """Create a box with solid faces for the given bounds. Parameters ---------- bounds : iterable, optional Specify the bounding box of the cube. ``(xMin, xMax, yMin, yMax, zMin, zMax)``. level : int, optional Level of subdivision of the faces. quads : bool, optional Flag to tell the source to generate either a quad or two triangle for a set of four points. Default ``True``. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Mesh of the box. Examples -------- Create a box with subdivision ``level=2``. >>> import pyvista >>> mesh = pyvista.Box(level=2) >>> mesh.plot(show_edges=True) """ if np.array(bounds).size != 6: raise TypeError( 'Bounds must be given as length 6 tuple: (xMin, xMax, yMin, yMax, zMin, zMax)' ) src = _vtk.vtkTessellatedBoxSource() src.SetLevel(level) src.SetQuads(quads) src.SetBounds(bounds) src.Update() return pyvista.wrap(src.GetOutput())
[docs]def Cone( center=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0), direction=(1.0, 0.0, 0.0), height=1.0, radius=None, capping=True, angle=None, resolution=6, ): """Create a cone. Parameters ---------- center : iterable, optional Center in ``[x, y, z]``. Axis of the cone passes through this point. direction : iterable, optional Direction vector in ``[x, y, z]``. Orientation vector of the cone. height : float, optional Height along the cone in its specified direction. radius : float, optional Base radius of the cone. capping : bool, optional Enable or disable the capping the base of the cone with a polygon. angle : float, optional The angle in degrees between the axis of the cone and a generatrix. resolution : int, optional Number of facets used to represent the cone. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Cone mesh. Examples -------- Create a default Cone. >>> import pyvista >>> mesh = pyvista.Cone() >>> mesh.plot(show_edges=True, line_width=5) """ src = _vtk.vtkConeSource() src.SetCapping(capping) src.SetDirection(direction) src.SetCenter(center) src.SetHeight(height) if angle and radius: raise ValueError("Both radius and angle specified. They are mutually exclusive.") elif angle and not radius: src.SetAngle(angle) elif not angle and radius: src.SetRadius(radius) elif not angle and not radius: src.SetRadius(0.5) src.SetResolution(resolution) src.Update() return pyvista.wrap(src.GetOutput())
[docs]def Polygon(center=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0), radius=1, normal=(0, 0, 1), n_sides=6, fill=True): """Create a polygon. Parameters ---------- center : iterable, optional Center in ``[x, y, z]``. Central axis of the polygon passes through this point. radius : float, optional The radius of the polygon. normal : iterable, optional Direction vector in ``[x, y, z]``. Orientation vector of the polygon. n_sides : int, optional Number of sides of the polygon. fill : bool, optional Enable or disable producing filled polygons. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Mesh of the polygon. Examples -------- Create an 8 sided polygon. >>> import pyvista >>> mesh = pyvista.Polygon(n_sides=8) >>> mesh.plot(show_edges=True, line_width=5) """ src = _vtk.vtkRegularPolygonSource() src.SetGeneratePolygon(fill) src.SetCenter(center) src.SetNumberOfSides(n_sides) src.SetRadius(radius) src.SetNormal(normal) src.Update() return pyvista.wrap(src.GetOutput())
[docs]def Disc(center=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0), inner=0.25, outer=0.5, normal=(0, 0, 1), r_res=1, c_res=6): """Create a polygonal disk with a hole in the center. The disk has zero height. The user can specify the inner and outer radius of the disk, and the radial and circumferential resolution of the polygonal representation. Parameters ---------- center : iterable Center in ``[x, y, z]``. Middle of the axis of the disc. inner : float, optional The inner radius. outer : float, optional The outer radius. normal : iterable Direction vector in ``[x, y, z]``. Orientation vector of the disc. r_res : int, optional Number of points in radial direction. c_res : int, optional Number of points in circumferential direction. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Disk mesh. Examples -------- Create a disc with 50 points in the circumferential direction. >>> import pyvista >>> mesh = pyvista.Disc(c_res=50) >>> mesh.plot(show_edges=True, line_width=5) """ src = _vtk.vtkDiskSource() src.SetInnerRadius(inner) src.SetOuterRadius(outer) src.SetRadialResolution(r_res) src.SetCircumferentialResolution(c_res) src.Update() normal = np.array(normal) center = np.array(center) surf = pyvista.wrap(src.GetOutput()) surf.rotate_y(90, inplace=True) translate(surf, center, normal) return surf
[docs]def Text3D(string, depth=0.5): """Create 3D text from a string. Parameters ---------- string : str String to generate 3D text from. depth : float, optional Depth of the text. Defaults to ``0.5``. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData 3D text mesh. Examples -------- >>> import pyvista >>> text_mesh = pyvista.Text3D('PyVista') >>> text_mesh.plot(cpos='xy') """ vec_text = _vtk.vtkVectorText() vec_text.SetText(string) extrude = _vtk.vtkLinearExtrusionFilter() extrude.SetInputConnection(vec_text.GetOutputPort()) extrude.SetExtrusionTypeToNormalExtrusion() extrude.SetVector(0, 0, 1) extrude.SetScaleFactor(depth) tri_filter = _vtk.vtkTriangleFilter() tri_filter.SetInputConnection(extrude.GetOutputPort()) tri_filter.Update() return pyvista.wrap(tri_filter.GetOutput())
[docs]def Wavelet( extent=(-10, 10, -10, 10, -10, 10), center=(0, 0, 0), maximum=255, x_freq=60, y_freq=30, z_freq=40, x_mag=10, y_mag=18, z_mag=5, std=0.5, subsample_rate=1, ): """Create a wavelet. Produces images with pixel values determined by ``Maximum*Gaussian*x_mag*sin(x_freq*x)*sin(y_freq*y)*cos(z_freq*z)`` Values are float scalars on point data with name ``"RTData"``. Parameters ---------- extent : sequence, optional Set/Get the extent of the whole output image. Default ``(-10, 10, -10, 10, -10, 10)``. center : list, optional Center of the wavelet. maximum : float, optional Maximum of the wavelet function. x_freq : float, optional Natural frequency in the x direction. y_freq : float, optional Natural frequency in the y direction. z_freq : float, optional Natural frequency in the z direction. x_mag : float, optional Magnitude in the x direction. y_mag : float, optional Magnitude in the y direction. z_mag : float, optional Magnitude in the z direction. std : float, optional Standard deviation. subsample_rate : int, optional The sub-sample rate. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Wavelet mesh. Examples -------- >>> import pyvista >>> wavelet = pyvista.Wavelet(extent=(0, 50, 0, 50, 0, 10), x_freq=20, ... y_freq=10, z_freq=1, x_mag=100, y_mag=100, ... z_mag=1000) >>> wavelet.plot(show_scalar_bar=False) Extract lower valued cells of the wavelet and create a surface from it. >>> thresh = wavelet.threshold(800).extract_surface() >>> thresh.plot(show_scalar_bar=False) Smooth it to create "waves" >>> waves = thresh.smooth(n_iter=100, relaxation_factor=0.1) >>> waves.plot(color='white', smooth_shading=True, show_edges=True) """ wavelet_source = _vtk.vtkRTAnalyticSource() wavelet_source.SetWholeExtent(*extent) wavelet_source.SetCenter(center) wavelet_source.SetMaximum(maximum) wavelet_source.SetXFreq(x_freq) wavelet_source.SetYFreq(y_freq) wavelet_source.SetZFreq(z_freq) wavelet_source.SetXMag(x_mag) wavelet_source.SetYMag(y_mag) wavelet_source.SetZMag(z_mag) wavelet_source.SetStandardDeviation(std) wavelet_source.SetSubsampleRate(subsample_rate) wavelet_source.Update() return pyvista.wrap(wavelet_source.GetOutput())
[docs]def CircularArc(pointa, pointb, center, resolution=100, negative=False): """Create a circular arc defined by two endpoints and a center. The number of segments composing the polyline is controlled by setting the object resolution. Parameters ---------- pointa : sequence Position of the first end point. pointb : sequence Position of the other end point. center : sequence Center of the circle that defines the arc. resolution : int, optional The number of segments of the polyline that draws the arc. Resolution of 1 will just create a line. negative : bool, optional By default the arc spans the shortest angular sector between ``pointa`` and ``pointb``. By setting this to ``True``, the longest angular sector is used instead (i.e. the negative coterminal angle to the shortest one). Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Circular arc mesh. Examples -------- Create a quarter arc centered at the origin in the xy plane. >>> import pyvista >>> arc = pyvista.CircularArc([-1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0], [0, 0, 0]) >>> pl = pyvista.Plotter() >>> _ = pl.add_mesh(arc, color='k', line_width=10) >>> _ = pl.show_bounds(location='all', font_size=30, use_2d=True) >>> _ = pl.view_xy() >>> pl.show() """ check_valid_vector(pointa, 'pointa') check_valid_vector(pointb, 'pointb') check_valid_vector(center, 'center') if not np.isclose( np.linalg.norm(np.array(pointa) - np.array(center)), np.linalg.norm(np.array(pointb) - np.array(center)), ): raise ValueError("pointa and pointb are not equidistant from center") # fix half-arc bug: if a half arc travels directly through the # center point, it becomes a line pointb = list(pointb) pointb[0] -= 1e-10 pointb[1] -= 1e-10 arc = _vtk.vtkArcSource() arc.SetPoint1(*pointa) arc.SetPoint2(*pointb) arc.SetCenter(*center) arc.SetResolution(resolution) arc.SetNegative(negative) arc.Update() angle = np.deg2rad(arc.GetAngle()) arc = pyvista.wrap(arc.GetOutput()) # Compute distance of every point along circular arc center = np.array(center).ravel() radius = np.sqrt(np.sum((arc.points[0] - center) ** 2, axis=0)) angles = np.arange(0.0, 1.0 + 1.0 / resolution, 1.0 / resolution) * angle arc['Distance'] = radius * angles return arc
[docs]def CircularArcFromNormal(center, resolution=100, normal=None, polar=None, angle=None): """Create a circular arc defined by normal to the plane of the arc, and an angle. The number of segments composing the polyline is controlled by setting the object resolution. Parameters ---------- center : sequence Center of the circle that defines the arc. resolution : int, optional The number of segments of the polyline that draws the arc. Resolution of 1 will just create a line. normal : sequence, optional The normal vector to the plane of the arc. By default it points in the positive Z direction. polar : sequence, optional Starting point of the arc in polar coordinates. By default it is the unit vector in the positive x direction. angle : float, optional Arc length (in degrees) beginning at the polar vector. The direction is counterclockwise. By default it is 90. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Circular arc mesh. Examples -------- Quarter arc centered at the origin in the xy plane. >>> import pyvista >>> normal = [0, 0, 1] >>> polar = [-1, 0, 0] >>> arc = pyvista.CircularArcFromNormal([0, 0, 0], normal=normal, polar=polar) >>> pl = pyvista.Plotter() >>> _ = pl.add_mesh(arc, color='k', line_width=10) >>> _ = pl.show_bounds(location='all', font_size=30, use_2d=True) >>> _ = pl.view_xy() >>> pl.show() """ check_valid_vector(center, 'center') if normal is None: normal = [0, 0, 1] if polar is None: polar = [1, 0, 0] if angle is None: angle = 90.0 arc = _vtk.vtkArcSource() arc.SetCenter(*center) arc.SetResolution(resolution) arc.UseNormalAndAngleOn() check_valid_vector(normal, 'normal') arc.SetNormal(*normal) check_valid_vector(polar, 'polar') arc.SetPolarVector(*polar) arc.SetAngle(angle) arc.Update() angle = np.deg2rad(arc.GetAngle()) arc = pyvista.wrap(arc.GetOutput()) # Compute distance of every point along circular arc center = np.array(center) radius = np.sqrt(np.sum((arc.points[0] - center) ** 2, axis=0)) angles = np.linspace(0.0, angle, resolution + 1) arc['Distance'] = radius * angles return arc
[docs]def Pyramid(points=None): """Create a pyramid defined by 5 points. Parameters ---------- points : sequence, optional Points of the pyramid. Points are ordered such that the first four points are the four counterclockwise points on the quadrilateral face, and the last point is the apex. Defaults to pyramid in example. Returns ------- pyvista.UnstructuredGrid Unstructured grid containing a single pyramid cell. Examples -------- >>> import pyvista >>> pointa = [1.0, 1.0, 0.0] >>> pointb = [-1.0, 1.0, 0.0] >>> pointc = [-1.0, -1.0, 0.0] >>> pointd = [1.0, -1.0, 0.0] >>> pointe = [0.0, 0.0, 1.608] >>> pyramid = pyvista.Pyramid([pointa, pointb, pointc, pointd, pointe]) >>> pyramid.plot(show_edges=True, line_width=5) """ if points is None: points = [ [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [-1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [-1.0, -1.0, 0.0], [1.0, -1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, (4 - 2**0.5) ** 0.5], ] if len(points) != 5: raise TypeError('Points must be given as length 5 np.ndarray or list') check_valid_vector(points[0], 'points[0]') check_valid_vector(points[1], 'points[1]') check_valid_vector(points[2], 'points[2]') check_valid_vector(points[3], 'points[3]') check_valid_vector(points[4], 'points[4]') pyramid = _vtk.vtkPyramid() pyramid.GetPointIds().SetId(0, 0) pyramid.GetPointIds().SetId(1, 1) pyramid.GetPointIds().SetId(2, 2) pyramid.GetPointIds().SetId(3, 3) pyramid.GetPointIds().SetId(4, 4) ug = _vtk.vtkUnstructuredGrid() ug.SetPoints(pyvista.vtk_points(np.array(points), False)) ug.InsertNextCell(pyramid.GetCellType(), pyramid.GetPointIds()) return pyvista.wrap(ug)
[docs]def Triangle(points=None): """Create a triangle defined by 3 points. Parameters ---------- points : sequence, optional Points of the triangle. Defaults to a right isosceles triangle (see example). Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Triangle mesh. Examples -------- >>> import pyvista >>> pointa = [0, 0, 0] >>> pointb = [1, 0, 0] >>> pointc = [0.5, 0.707, 0] >>> triangle = pyvista.Triangle([pointa, pointb, pointc]) >>> triangle.plot(show_edges=True, line_width=5) """ if points is None: points = [[0, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [0.5, 0.5**0.5, 0]] if len(points) != 3: raise TypeError('Points must be given as length 3 np.ndarray or list') check_valid_vector(points[0], 'points[0]') check_valid_vector(points[1], 'points[1]') check_valid_vector(points[2], 'points[2]') cells = np.array([[3, 0, 1, 2]]) return pyvista.wrap(pyvista.PolyData(points, cells))
[docs]def Rectangle(points=None): """Create a rectangle defined by 4 points. Parameters ---------- points : sequence, optional Points of the rectangle. Defaults to a simple example. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Rectangle mesh. Examples -------- >>> import pyvista >>> pointa = [1.0, 0.0, 0.0] >>> pointb = [1.0, 1.0, 0.0] >>> pointc = [0.0, 1.0, 0.0] >>> pointd = [0.0, 0.0, 0.0] >>> rectangle = pyvista.Rectangle([pointa, pointb, pointc, pointd]) >>> rectangle.plot(show_edges=True, line_width=5) """ if points is None: points = [[1.0, 0.0, 0.0], [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, 0.0]] if len(points) != 4: raise TypeError('Points must be given as length 4 np.ndarray or list') check_valid_vector(points[0], 'points[0]') check_valid_vector(points[1], 'points[1]') check_valid_vector(points[2], 'points[2]') check_valid_vector(points[3], 'points[3]') cells = np.array([[4, 0, 1, 2, 3]]) return pyvista.wrap(pyvista.PolyData(points, cells))
[docs]def Circle(radius=0.5, resolution=100): """Create a single PolyData circle defined by radius in the XY plane. Parameters ---------- radius : float, optional Radius of circle. resolution : int, optional Number of points on the circle. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Circle mesh. Examples -------- >>> import pyvista >>> radius = 0.5 >>> circle = pyvista.Circle(radius) >>> circle.plot(show_edges=True, line_width=5) """ points = np.zeros((resolution, 3)) theta = np.linspace(0.0, 2.0 * np.pi, resolution) points[:, 0] = radius * np.cos(theta) points[:, 1] = radius * np.sin(theta) cells = np.array([np.append(np.array([resolution]), np.arange(resolution))]) return pyvista.wrap(pyvista.PolyData(points, cells))
[docs]def Superquadric( center=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0), scale=(1.0, 1.0, 1.0), size=0.5, theta_roundness=1.0, phi_roundness=1.0, theta_resolution=16, phi_resolution=16, toroidal=False, thickness=1 / 3, ): """Create a superquadric. Parameters ---------- center : iterable, optional Center of the superquadric in ``[x, y, z]``. scale : iterable, optional Scale factors of the superquadric in ``[x, y, z]``. size : float, optional Superquadric isotropic size. theta_roundness : float, optional Superquadric east/west roundness. Values range from 0 (rectangular) to 1 (circular) to higher orders. phi_roundness : float, optional Superquadric north/south roundness. Values range from 0 (rectangular) to 1 (circular) to higher orders. theta_resolution : int, optional Number of points in the longitude direction. Values are rounded to nearest multiple of 4. phi_resolution : int, optional Number of points in the latitude direction. Values are rounded to nearest multiple of 8. toroidal : bool, optional Whether or not the superquadric is toroidal (``True``) or ellipsoidal (``False``). thickness : float, optional Superquadric ring thickness. Only applies if toroidal is set to ``True``. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Superquadric mesh. See Also -------- pyvista.ParametricSuperEllipsoid : Parametric superquadric if toroidal is ``False``. pyvista.ParametricSuperToroid : Parametric superquadric if toroidal is ``True``. Examples -------- >>> import pyvista >>> superquadric = pyvista.Superquadric(scale=(3., 1., 0.5), ... phi_roundness=0.1, ... theta_roundness=0.5) >>> superquadric.plot(show_edges=True) """ superquadricSource = _vtk.vtkSuperquadricSource() superquadricSource.SetCenter(center) superquadricSource.SetScale(scale) superquadricSource.SetSize(size) superquadricSource.SetThetaRoundness(theta_roundness) superquadricSource.SetPhiRoundness(phi_roundness) superquadricSource.SetThetaResolution(round(theta_resolution / 4) * 4) superquadricSource.SetPhiResolution(round(phi_resolution / 8) * 8) superquadricSource.SetToroidal(toroidal) superquadricSource.SetThickness(thickness) superquadricSource.Update() return pyvista.wrap(superquadricSource.GetOutput())
[docs]def PlatonicSolid(kind='tetrahedron', radius=1.0, center=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0)): """Create a Platonic solid of a given size. Parameters ---------- kind : str or int, optional The kind of Platonic solid to create. Either the name of the polyhedron or an integer index: * ``'tetrahedron'`` or ``0`` * ``'cube'`` or ``1`` * ``'octahedron'`` or ``2`` * ``'icosahedron'`` or ``3`` * ``'dodecahedron'`` or ``4`` radius : float, optional The radius of the circumscribed sphere for the solid to create. center : sequence, optional Three-length sequence defining the center of the solid to create. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData One of the five Platonic solids. Cell scalars are defined that assign integer labels to each face (with array name ``"FaceIndex"``). Examples -------- Create and plot a dodecahedron. >>> import pyvista >>> dodeca = pyvista.PlatonicSolid('dodecahedron') >>> dodeca.plot(categories=True) See :ref:`platonic_example` for more examples using this filter. """ kinds = { 'tetrahedron': 0, 'cube': 1, 'octahedron': 2, 'icosahedron': 3, 'dodecahedron': 4, } if isinstance(kind, str): if kind not in kinds: raise ValueError(f'Invalid Platonic solid kind "{kind}".') kind = kinds[kind] elif isinstance(kind, int) and kind not in range(5): raise ValueError(f'Invalid Platonic solid index "{kind}".') elif not isinstance(kind, int): raise ValueError(f'Invalid Platonic solid index type "{type(kind).__name__}".') check_valid_vector(center, 'center') solid = _vtk.vtkPlatonicSolidSource() solid.SetSolidType(kind) solid.Update() solid = pyvista.wrap(solid.GetOutput()) # rename and activate cell scalars cell_data = solid.cell_data.get_array(0) solid.clear_data() solid.cell_data['FaceIndex'] = cell_data # scale and translate solid.scale(radius, inplace=True) solid.points += np.asanyarray(center) - solid.center return solid
[docs]def Tetrahedron(radius=1.0, center=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0)): """Create a tetrahedron of a given size. A tetrahedron is composed of four congruent equilateral triangles. Parameters ---------- radius : float, optional The radius of the circumscribed sphere for the tetrahedron. center : sequence, optional Three-length sequence defining the center of the tetrahedron. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Mesh for the tetrahedron. Cell scalars are defined that assign integer labels to each face (with array name ``"FaceIndex"``). Examples -------- Create and plot a tetrahedron. >>> import pyvista >>> tetra = pyvista.Tetrahedron() >>> tetra.plot(categories=True) See :ref:`platonic_example` for more examples using this filter. """ return PlatonicSolid(kind='tetrahedron', radius=radius, center=center)
[docs]def Octahedron(radius=1.0, center=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0)): """Create an octahedron of a given size. An octahedron is composed of eight congruent equilateral triangles. Parameters ---------- radius : float, optional The radius of the circumscribed sphere for the octahedron. center : sequence, optional Three-length sequence defining the center of the octahedron. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Mesh for the octahedron. Cell scalars are defined that assign integer labels to each face (with array name ``"FaceIndex"``). Examples -------- Create and plot an octahedron. >>> import pyvista >>> tetra = pyvista.Octahedron() >>> tetra.plot(categories=True) See :ref:`platonic_example` for more examples using this filter. """ return PlatonicSolid(kind='octahedron', radius=radius, center=center)
[docs]def Dodecahedron(radius=1.0, center=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0)): """Create a dodecahedron of a given size. A dodecahedron is composed of twelve congruent regular pentagons. Parameters ---------- radius : float, optional The radius of the circumscribed sphere for the dodecahedron. center : sequence, optional Three-length sequence defining the center of the dodecahedron. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Mesh for the dodecahedron. Cell scalars are defined that assign integer labels to each face (with array name ``"FaceIndex"``). Examples -------- Create and plot a dodecahedron. >>> import pyvista >>> tetra = pyvista.Dodecahedron() >>> tetra.plot(categories=True) See :ref:`platonic_example` for more examples using this filter. """ return PlatonicSolid(kind='dodecahedron', radius=radius, center=center)
[docs]def Icosahedron(radius=1.0, center=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0)): """Create an icosahedron of a given size. An icosahedron is composed of twenty congruent equilateral triangles. Parameters ---------- radius : float, optional The radius of the circumscribed sphere for the icosahedron. center : sequence, optional Three-length sequence defining the center of the icosahedron. Returns ------- pyvista.PolyData Mesh for the icosahedron. Cell scalars are defined that assign integer labels to each face (with array name ``"FaceIndex"``). Examples -------- Create and plot an icosahedron. >>> import pyvista >>> tetra = pyvista.Icosahedron() >>> tetra.plot(categories=True) See :ref:`platonic_example` for more examples using this filter. """ return PlatonicSolid(kind='icosahedron', radius=radius, center=center)